Escape From Camp 14 Book Report

Escape From Camp 14 Book Report

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

escape

1. To break loose from confinement; get free: escape from jail.

2. To issue from confinement or enclosure; leak or seep out: Gas was escaping from the vent.

3. To avoid a serious or unwanted outcome: escaped from the accident with their lives.

4.Biology To become established in the wild. Used of a plant or animal.

5.Computers To interrupt a command, exit a program, or change levels within a program by using a key, combination of keys, or key sequence.

1. To succeed in avoiding: The thief escaped punishment.

2. To break loose from; get free of: The spacecraft escaped Earth’s gravitational field.

3. To be outside the memory or understanding of; fail to be remembered or understood by: Her name escapes me. The book’s significance escaped him.

4. To issue involuntarily from: A sigh escaped my lips.

1. The act or an instance of escaping.

2. A means of escaping.

3. A means of obtaining temporary freedom from worry, care, or unpleasantness: Television is my escape from worry.

4. A gradual effusion from an enclosure; a leakage.

5.Biology A cultivated plant or a domesticated or confined animal that has become established in the wild.

6.Computers A key used especially to interrupt a command, exit a program, or change levels within a program.

[Middle English escapen. from Old North French escaper. from Vulgar Latin *excappāre. to get out of one’s cape, get away. Latin ex-. ex- + Medieval Latin cappa. cloak .]

Usage Note: The pronunciation (ĭk-skāp′) is often viewed by many as incorrect and is probably a result of confusion with words beginning with the prefix ex-. The word is properly pronounced without the (k) sound between the short i and the (sk) sound: (ĭ-skāp′).

escape

1. to get away or break free from (confinements, captors, etc): the lion escaped from the zoo.

2. to manage to avoid (imminent danger, punishment, evil, etc): to escape death.

3. (usually foll by: from ) (of gases, liquids, etc) to issue gradually, as from a crack or fissure; seep; leak: water was escaping from the dam.

4. (tr ) to elude; be forgotten by: the actual figure escapes me.

5. (tr ) to be articulated inadvertently or involuntarily: a roar escaped his lips.

6. (Horticulture) (intr ) (of cultivated plants) to grow wild

7. the act of escaping or state of having escaped

8. avoidance of injury, harm, etc: a narrow escape.

a. a means or way of escape

b. (as modifier ): an escape route.

10. a means of distraction or relief, esp from reality or boredom: angling provides an escape for many city dwellers.

11. a gradual outflow; leakage; seepage

12. (Mechanical Engineering) Also called: escape valveorescape cock a valve that releases air, steam, etc, above a certain pressure; relief valve or safety valve

13. (Horticulture) a plant that was originally cultivated but is now growing wild

[C14: from Old Northern French escaper, from Vulgar Latin excappāre (unattested) to escape (literally: to remove one’s cloak, hence free oneself), from ex- 1 + Late Latin cappa cloak]

es•cape

1. to slip or get away, as from confinement or restraint.

2. to avoid capture, punishment, or any threatened evil.

3. to issue from a confining enclosure, as a gas or liquid.

4. to slip away; fade.

5. (of an orig. cultivated plant) to grow wild.

6. to slip away from or elude: to escape the police.

7. to succeed in avoiding: to escape capture.

8. to elude (one’s memory, notice, search, etc.).

9. (of a sound or utterance) to slip from or be expressed by inadvertently.

10. an act or instance of escaping.

11. the fact of having escaped.

12. a means of escaping.

13. avoidance of reality.

14. leakage, as of water or gas, from a pipe or storage container.

15. a plant that originated in cultivated stock and is now growing wild.

16. a key on a microcomputer keyboard, often used to return to a previous program screen.

17. for or providing an escape: an escape hatch.

[1250–1300; < Old North French escaper (French échapper ) < Vulgar Latin *excappāre, v. derivative (with ex- ex – 1 ) of Late Latin cappa hooded cloak (see cap 1 )]

syn: escape. elude. evade mean to keep free of something. To escape is to succeed in keeping away from danger, pursuit, observation, etc. to escape punishment. To elude is to slip through an apparently tight net, thus avoiding, often by a narrow margin, whatever threatens; it implies using adroitness or slyness to baffle or foil: The fox eluded the hounds. To evade is to turn aside from or go out of reach of a person or thing, usu. by directing attention elsewhere: to evade the police .

Escape

a mania for running away.

Obsolete. swimming away, especially escaping by swimming.

the art or technique of escaping from chains, locked trunks, etc. especially when exhibited as a form of entertainment. — escapist. n. adj .

fleeing from justice, as by a criminal.

a flight or escape to safety.

Escape

fly the coop To escape, as from a prison; to depart suddenly, often clandestinely. In this expression, coop is slang for a prison or any other confining place, literal or figurative. Thus, while the phrase is commonly applied to prison escapes, it is sometimes used to describe a child who has run away from home or an employee who quits suddenly because of the pressures and restrictions of his job.

give leg bail To run away; to escape from confinement on foot. Literally, bail is the surety, often provided by a third party, which allows a prisoner temporary liberty. In this rather droll expression, however, the prisoner is only indebted to his legs for his escape from custody.

I had concluded to use no chivalry, but give them leg-bail instead of it, by … making for a deep swamp. (James Adair, History of the American Indian. 1775)

give the guy To give someone the slip, to escape; also to do a guy and to guy ‘to run away, to decamp.’ Although of unknown origin, guy in these phrases means ‘a decampment, a running off on the sly.’ All three of these British slang expressions date from the late 19th century.

give the slip To elude or to escape from a person; to steal away or slip away unnoticed. Slip as an intransitive verb meaning ‘to escape or get away’ dates from the 14th century; transitive use dates from the 16th century. No explanation for the change to the substantive in give the slip is very plausible. One possibility is that the expression derives from the nautical slip which means ‘to allow the anchor-cable to run out when trying to make a quick getaway.’ Another theory suggests that the expression alludes to the image of an animal “slipping” its collar in order to run free. Neither theory is convincing, however, since it is difficult to determine accurately which use came first.

on the lam Escaping, fleeing, or hiding, especially from the police or other law enforcement officers. This popular underworld slang expression, in use since at least 1900, first received general acceptance and popularity during the 1920s. Lam probably derives from the Scandinavian lemja ‘to beat’ or, in this case, ‘to beat it, flee.’ A similar expression is take it on the lam .

He plugged the main guy for keeps, and I took it on the lam for mine. (No. 1500, Life in Sing-Sing. 1904)

show a clean pair of heels To escape by superior speed; to outrun; to run off; also show a fair pair of heels or a pair of heels. This expression, in use since 1654, is said to have derived from the ancient sport of cockfighting. Since Roman times gamecocks have fought wearing heels or metal spurs. If a rooster ran away instead of fighting, he was said to have shown his rival a clean pair of heels, since his spurs were unsullied by the blood of combat.

escape

The verb escape has several meanings. For some of these meanings, it is a transitive verb. For others, it is an intransitive verb.

1.used as a transitive verb

If you escape a situation that is dangerous, unpleasant, or difficult, you succeed in avoiding it.

They are also emigrating to escape mounting economic problems there.

He seemed to escape the loneliness of extreme old age.

They want to escape responsibility for what they have done.

If you cannot escape a feeling or belief, you cannot help having it.

One cannot escape the feeling that there is something missing.

It is difficult to escape the conclusion that they are actually intended for the black market.

2.used as an intransitive verb

If you escape from a place where you are in danger, you succeed in leaving it.

Last year thousands escaped from the country in small boats.

If you escape from a place such as a prison, you get out of it and are free.

In 1966 the spy George Blake escaped from prison.

Even if he managed to escape, where would he run?

If you escape when someone is trying to catch you, you avoid being caught.

The two other burglars were tipped off by a lookout and escaped.

Get away can be used with the same meaning.

George Watin got away and is presumed to be living in Spain.

escape

escape

(= get away) → flüchten. fliehen (from aus), entfliehen (geh) (→ from+dat ); (from pursuers, captivity) → entkommen (→ from+dat ); (from prison, camp, cage, stall etc) → ausbrechen (from aus) ; (bird) → entfliegen (→ from+dat ); (water) → auslaufen (from aus) ; (gas) → ausströmen (from aus) ; to stop the prisoners escaping → um Gefängnisausbrüche zu verhindern ; he was shot dead while trying to escape → er wurde bei einem Fluchtversuch erschossen ; an escape d prisoner/tiger → ein entflohener Häftling /entsprungener Tiger ; he escape d from the fire → er ist dem Feuer entkommen ; I’ve got you now, she said, and I won’t let you escape → jetzt habe ich dich, sagte sie, und du entkommst mir so schnell nicht ; I just feel I have to escape from this place → ich habe einfach das Gefühl. dass ich hier wegmuss ; she has to be able to escape from her family sometimes → sie muss ab und zu die Möglichkeit haben, ihrer Familie zu entfliehen ; a room which I can escape to → ein Zimmer. in das ich mich zurückziehen kann ; to escape from oneself → vor sich (dat) → selber fliehen ; it’s no good trying to escape from the world → es hat keinen Zweck. vor der Welt fliehen zu wollen ; he’s trying to escape from life on the streets → er versucht. von dem Leben auf der Straße wegzukommen ; to escape from reality → der Wirklichkeit entfliehen (geh) ; to escape from poverty → der Armut entkommen

(= get off, be spared) → davonkommen ; these cuts will affect everyone, nobody will escape → diese Kürzungen betreffen alle, keiner wird ungeschoren davonkommen ; the others were killed, but he escape d → die anderen wurden getötet. aber er kam mit dem Leben davon

(= be unnoticed, forgotten by) his name escape s me → sein Name ist mir entfallen ; nothing escape s him → ihm entgeht nichts ; to escape notice → unbemerkt bleiben ; it had not escape d her (attention) → es war ihr or ihrer Aufmerksamkeit nicht entgangen

the thoughtless words which escape d me → die unbedachten Worte. die mir herausgerutscht or entfahren sind

escape

1. to gain freedom. He escaped from prison. ontsnapping يَهْرُب избягвам escapar uprchnout entkommen flygte; undslippe δραπετεύω escapar põgenema, pääsema فرار کردن paeta s’évader לִברוֹח भागना pobjeći megszökik melarikan diri sleppa, brjóstast út, flÿja evadere 逃げる 탈출하다 pabėgti izbēgt (no ieslodzījuma) terlepas ontsnappen slippe ut. unnslippe. gå fri uciekać تښتیدل escapar a evada совершать побег ujsť pobegniti pobeći rymma หนี kaçmak 逃跑 врятуватися بندش سے آزاد ہونا trốn thoát 逃跑

2. to manage to avoid (punishment, disease etc ). She escaped the infection. ontkoming يَتَجَنَّب изшлъзвам се escapar uniknout entgehen undgå ξεφεύγω. γλιτώνω salvarse. librarse vältima جان سالم به در بردن؛ نجات یافتن välttää échapper לְהִימָלֵט बचकर भाग जाना izbjeći elkerül menghindari komast hjá evitare のがれる 모면하다 išvengti izvairīties elak mislopen slippe unna. unngå unikać ځان بچول escapar a a scăpa (de) избежать uniknúť izogniti se izbeći slippa undan, undkomma หลบหนี kurtulmak 避免 утекти; уникнути کسی چیز سے بچ نکلنا tránh được 避免

3. to avoid being noticed or remembered by; to avoid (the observation of). The fact escaped me / my notice; His name escapes me / my memory. ontwyking يَمْلُص، يَغيب عن البال изплъзвам се escapar ujít entfallen undslippe διαφεύγω escapar. pasar inadvertido tähele panemata jääma, mitte meenuma به یاد نیاوردن؛ فراموش کردن unohtua échapper לְהֵיעָלֵם बचना promaknuti elkerül (figyelmet) luput gleymast sfuggire のがれる (생각 등을) 피하다 praslysti, išslysti piemirst; izgaist (no atmiņas) menghindari ontgaan unngå oppmerksomhet. ikke huske uchodzić فراموش کیدل escapar a scăpa ускользать uniknúť uiti promaći undgå, falla ur minnet หลุด; ลอด akla gelmemek, hatırlamamak 未被注意到 випадати حافظے سے نکل جانا bị bỏ sót 未被注意到

4. (of a gas, liquid etc ) to leak; to find a way out. Gas was escaping from a hole in the pipe. ontsnap يَنْبَعِث، يَتَسَرَّب измъквам се escapar ucházet ausströmen strømme ud; slippe ud; løbe ud διαρρέω fugarse välja voolama درز کردن؛ نشت کردن vuotaa échapper לְהִשתַחרֵר रिसाव istjecati elillan, kiömlik, szökik bocor leka fuoriuscire 漏れる 새어 나오다 veržtis, nutekėti (par gāzi) noplūst bocor ontsnappen slippe ut ulatniać się چاكيدل،درز پيدا كول escapar a se scurge улетучиваться uniknúť uhajati curiti läcka รั่ว sızmak, kaçmak 漏出 виділятися; звітрюватися رسنا ، اخراج کرنا یا ہونا thoát ra 漏出

(act of) escaping; state of having escaped. Make your escape while the guard is away; There have been several escapes from that prison; Escape was impossible; The explosion was caused by an escape of gas. ontsnappings, ontvlugtings إنْبِعاث، تَسَرُّب бягство fuga útěk, únik die Flucht, das Entweichen flugt; udslip απόδραση. διαφυγή. διαρροή fuga põgenemine, väljavool فرار؛ نشت pako évasion ; fuite בריחה छुटकारा bijeg, bježanje (meg)szökés pelarian flótti; gasleki fuga. evasione 逃亡 탈출 pabėgimas, nutekėjimas bēgšana; izglābšanās; gāzes (noplūde) kebocoran ontsnapping flukt ucieczka. wyciek تښت fuga evadare; scurgere побег ; утечка útek; únik pobeg; uhajanje bekstvo rymning, flykt, läcka การหนี; การรั่ว kaçış. sızma 逃跑,逸出 втеча بچاؤ sự trốn thoát 逃跑,逸出

the tendency to escape from unpleasant reality into day-dreams etc. ontvlugting هُروب من الواقِع إلى الخَيال бягство escapismo eskapismus die Flucht vor der Realität eskapisme; virkelighedsflugt τάση φυγής από την πραγματικότητα escapismo eskapism گریز گرایی eskapismi évasion מִפלָט מִן הַמְצִיאוּת पलायनवाद bijeg od stvarnosti légvárépítés eskapisme veruleikaflótti evasione dalla realtà 現実逃避 현실 도피 bėgimas nuo tikrovės bēgšana no īstenības eskapisme escapisme virkelighetsflukt. eskapisme eskapizm تښتیدل escapismo es­ca­pism эскапизм eskapizmus beg iz resničnosti beg od stvarnosti eskapism การหลบเลี่ยงความเป็นจริงโดยการปล่อยอารมณ์ไปกับการฝันกลางวัน kaçınmacılık, gerçeklerden kaçış 逃避現實 намагання відійти від дійсності فراریت sự chạy trốn thực tại 逃避现实

adjective. ontvlugter, ontsnapper تَهَرُّبي، مُتَهَرِّب من الواقِع който бяга от действителността escapista únikový Zerstreuungs-. eskapistisk που κάνει κπ. να ξεφύγει από την πραγματικότητα escapista eskapist گریز گرای eskapisti d’évasion קָלִיל וּמבָדֵר पलायनवादी eskapistički, onaj koji bježi od stvarnosti légvárépítő eskapis sá sem stundar veruleikaflótta 現実逃避者 [] な 현실 도피적인 kuris bėga nuo tikrovės tāds, kurš bēg no īstenības orang yang lari dari kenyataan escapist eskapist marzyciel(ski) تښتیدل escapista epileptic эскапист(ский) utečenec; únikový ki se izogiba resničnosti begunac od stvarnosti eskapist ผู้หนีความทุกข์ kaçınmacı 逃避主義 той, хто ухиляється від військової служби فراریت کا قائل người chạy trốn thực tế 逃避主义

escape

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The New York Times

Claiming the Quran’s support, the Islamic State codifies sex slavery in conquered regions of Iraq and Syria and uses the practice as a recruiting tool.

ISIS Enshrines a Theology of Rape

By RUKMINI CALLIMACHI

August 13, 2015

QADIYA, Iraq — In the moments before he raped the 12-year-old girl, the Islamic State fighter took the time to explain that what he was about to do was not a sin. Because the preteen girl practiced a religion other than Islam, the Quran not only gave him the right to rape her — it condoned and encouraged it, he insisted.

He bound her hands and gagged her. Then he knelt beside the bed and prostrated himself in prayer before getting on top of her.

When it was over, he knelt to pray again, bookending the rape with acts of religious devotion.

“I kept telling him it hurts — please stop,” said the girl, whose body is so small an adult could circle her waist with two hands. “He told me that according to Islam he is allowed to rape an unbeliever. He said that by raping me, he is drawing closer to God,” she said in an interview alongside her family in a refugee camp here, to which she escaped after 11 months of captivity.

The systematic rape of women and girls from the Yazidi religious minority has become deeply enmeshed in the organization and the radical theology of the Islamic State in the year since the group announced it was reviving slavery as an institution. Interviews with 21 women and girls who recently escaped the Islamic State, as well as an examination of the group’s official communications, illuminate how the practice has been enshrined in the group’s core tenets.

The trade in Yazidi women and girls has created a persistent infrastructure, with a network of warehouses where the victims are held, viewing rooms where they are inspected and marketed, and a dedicated fleet of buses used to transport them.

A total of 5,270 Yazidis were abducted last year, and at least 3,144 are still being held, according to community leaders. To handle them, the Islamic State has developed a detailed bureaucracy of sex slavery, including sales contracts notarized by the ISIS-run Islamic courts. And the practice has become an established recruiting tool to lure men from deeply conservative Muslim societies, where casual sex is taboo and dating is forbidden.

A growing body of internal policy memos and theological discussions has established guidelines for slavery, including a lengthy how-to manual issued by the Islamic State Research and Fatwa Department just last month. Repeatedly, the ISIS leadership has emphasized a narrow and selective reading of the Quran and other religious rulings to not only justify violence, but also to elevate and celebrate each sexual assault as spiritually beneficial, even virtuous.

“Every time that he came to rape me, he would pray,” said F, a 15-year-old girl who was captured on the shoulder of Mount Sinjar one year ago and was sold to an Iraqi fighter in his 20s. Like some others interviewed by The New York Times, she wanted to be identified only by her first initial because of the shame associated with rape.

“He kept telling me this is ibadah,” she said, using a term from Islamic scripture meaning worship.

A 15-year-old girl who wished to be identified only as F, right, with her father and 4-year-old brother. “Every time that he came to rape me, he would pray,” said F, who was captured by the Islamic State on Mount Sinjar one year ago and sold to an Iraqi fighter.

Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

“He said that raping me is his prayer to God. I said to him, ‘What you’re doing to me is wrong, and it will not bring you closer to God.’ And he said, ‘No, it’s allowed. It’s halal,’ ” said the teenager, who escaped in April with the help of smugglers after being enslaved for nearly nine months.

Calculated Conquest

The Islamic State’s formal introduction of systematic sexual slavery dates to Aug. 3, 2014, when its fighters invaded the villages on the southern flank of Mount Sinjar, a craggy massif of dun-colored rock in northern Iraq.

Its valleys and ravines are home to the Yazidis, a tiny religious minority who represent less than 1.5 percent of Iraq’s estimated population of 34 million.

The offensive on the mountain came just two months after the fall of Mosul, the second-largest city in Iraq. At first, it appeared that the subsequent advance on the mountain was just another attempt to extend the territory controlled by Islamic State fighters.

Almost immediately, there were signs that their aim this time was different.

Survivors say that men and women were separated within the first hour of their capture. Adolescent boys were told to lift up their shirts, and if they had armpit hair, they were directed to join their older brothers and fathers. In village after village, the men and older boys were driven or marched to nearby fields, where they were forced to lie down in the dirt and sprayed with automatic fire.

The women, girls and children, however, were hauled off in open-bed trucks.

“The offensive on the mountain was as much a sexual conquest as it was for territorial gain,” said Matthew Barber, a University of Chicago expert on the Yazidi minority. He was in Dohuk, near Mount Sinjar, when the onslaught began last summer and helped create a foundation that provides psychological support for the escapees, who number more than 2,000, according to community activists.

Fifteen-year-old F says her family of nine was trying to escape, speeding up mountain switchbacks, when their aging Opel overheated. She, her mother, and her sisters — 14, 7, and 4 years old — were helplessly standing by their stalled car when a convoy of heavily armed Islamic State fighters encircled them.

“Right away, the fighters separated the men from the women,” she said. She, her mother and sisters were first taken in trucks to the nearest town on Mount Sinjar. “There, they separated me from my mom. The young, unmarried girls were forced to get into buses.”

The buses were white, with a painted stripe next to the word “Hajj,” suggesting that the Islamic State had commandeered Iraqi government buses used to transport pilgrims for the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. So many Yazidi women and girls were loaded inside F’s bus that they were forced to sit on each other’s laps, she said.

Once the bus headed out, they noticed that the windows were blocked with curtains, an accouterment that appeared to have been added because the fighters planned to transport large numbers of women who were not covered in burqas or head scarves.

F’s account, including the physical description of the bus, the placement of the curtains and the manner in which the women were transported, is echoed by a dozen other female victims interviewed for this article. They described a similar set of circumstances even though they were kidnapped on different days and in locations miles apart.

Sunset over Dohuk, in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq. Islamic State militants have conquered large areas of Iraq, and the systematic rape of women and girls from the Yazidi religious minority has become deeply enmeshed in the group's organization and theology.

Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

F says she was driven to the Iraqi city of Mosul some six hours away, where they herded them into the Galaxy Wedding Hall. Other groups of women and girls were taken to a palace from the Saddam Hussein era, the Badoosh prison compound and the Directory of Youth building in Mosul, recent escapees said. And in addition to Mosul, women were herded into elementary schools and municipal buildings in the Iraqi towns of Tal Afar, Solah, Ba’aj and Sinjar City.

They would be held in confinement, some for days, some for months. Then, inevitably, they were loaded into the same fleet of buses again before being sent in smaller groups to Syria or to other locations inside Iraq, where they were bought and sold for sex .

“It was 100 percent preplanned,” said Khider Domle, a Yazidi community activist who maintains a detailed database of the victims. “I spoke by telephone to the first family who arrived at the Directory of Youth in Mosul, and the hall was already prepared for them. They had mattresses, plates and utensils, food and water for hundreds of people.”

Detailed reports by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International reach the same conclusion about the organized nature of the sex trade.

In each location, survivors say Islamic State fighters first conducted a census of their female captives.

Inside the voluminous Galaxy banquet hall, F sat on the marble floor, squeezed between other adolescent girls. In all she estimates there were over 1,300 Yazidi girls sitting, crouching, splayed out and leaning against the walls of the ballroom, a number that is confirmed by several other women held in the same location.

They each described how three Islamic State fighters walked in, holding a register. They told the girls to stand. Each one was instructed to state her first, middle and last name, her age, her hometown, whether she was married, and if she had children.

For two months, F was held inside the Galaxy hall. Then one day, they came and began removing young women. Those who refused were dragged out by their hair, she said.

In the parking lot the same fleet of Hajj buses was waiting to take them to their next destination, said F. Along with 24 other girls and young women, the 15-year-old was driven to an army base in Iraq. It was there in the parking lot that she heard the word “sabaya for the first time.

“They laughed and jeered at us, saying ‘You are our sabaya.’ I didn’t know what that word meant,” she said. Later on, the local Islamic State leader explained it meant slave.

“He told us that Taus Malik” — one of seven angels to whom the Yazidis pray — “is not God. He said that Taus Malik is the devil and that because you worship the devil, you belong to us. We can sell you and use you as we see fit.”

The Islamic State’s sex trade appears to be based solely on enslaving women and girls from the Yazidi minority. As yet, there has been no widespread campaign aimed at enslaving women from other religious minorities, said Samer Muscati, the author of the recent Human Rights Watch report. That assertion was echoed by community leaders, government officials and other human rights workers.

Mr. Barber, of the University of Chicago, said that the focus on Yazidis was likely because they are seen as polytheists, with an oral tradition rather than a written scripture. In the Islamic State’s eyes that puts them on the fringe of despised unbelievers, even more than Christians and Jews, who are considered to have some limited protections under the Quran as “People of the Book.”

In Kojo, one of the southernmost villages on Mount Sinjar and among the farthest away from escape, residents decided to stay, believing they would be treated as the Christians of Mosul had months earlier. On Aug. 15, 2014, the Islamic State ordered the residents to report to a school in the center of town.

Interactive Feature | State of Terror Articles in this series examine the rise of the Islamic State and life inside the territory it has conquered.

When she got there, 40-year-old Aishan Ali Saleh found a community elder negotiating with the Islamic State, asking if they could be allowed to hand over their money and gold in return for safe passage.

The fighters initially agreed and laid out a blanket, where Ms. Saleh placed her heart-shaped pendant and her gold rings, while the men left crumpled bills.

Aishan Ali Saleh, 40, at a refugee camp on the outskirts of Dohuk. She had lived in Kojo, one of the southernmost villages on Mount Sinjar, which was overrun by Islamic State fighters.

Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Instead of letting them go, the fighters began shoving the men outside, bound for death.

Sometime later, a fleet of cars arrived and the women, girls and children were driven away.

The Market

Months later, the Islamic State made clear in its online magazine that its campaign of enslaving Yazidi women and girls had been extensively preplanned.

“Prior to the taking of Sinjar, Shariah students in the Islamic State were tasked to research the Yazidis,” said the English-language article, headlined “The Revival of Slavery Before the Hour,” which appeared in the October issue of the magazine, Dabiq.

The article made clear that for the Yazidis, there was no chance to pay a tax known as jizya to be set free, “unlike the Jews and Christians.”

“After capture, the Yazidi women and children were then divided according to the Shariah amongst the fighters of the Islamic State who participated in the Sinjar operations, after one fifth of the slaves were transferred to the Islamic State’s authority to be divided” as spoils, the article said.

Video In a video posted in October 2014 on YouTube, a group of men believed to be Islamic State fighters are shown sitting in a room bantering about buying and selling Yazidi girls on “slave market day.”

In much the same way as specific Bible passages were used centuries later to support the slave trade in the United States, the Islamic State cites specific verses or stories in the Quran or else in the Sunna, the traditions based on the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad, to justify their human trafficking, experts say.

Scholars of Islamic theology disagree, however, on the proper interpretation of these verses, and on the divisive question of whether Islam actually sanctions slavery.

Many argue that slavery figures in Islamic scripture in much the same way that it figures in the Bible — as a reflection of the period in antiquity in which the religion was born.

“In the milieu in which the Quran arose, there was a widespread practice of men having sexual relationships with unfree women,” said Kecia Ali, an associate professor of religion at Boston University and the author of a book on slavery in early Islam. “It wasn’t a particular religious institution. It was just how people did things.”

Cole Bunzel, a scholar of Islamic theology at Princeton University, disagrees, pointing to the numerous references to the phrase “Those your right hand possesses” in the Quran, which for centuries has been interpreted to mean female slaves. He also points to the corpus of Islamic jurisprudence, which continues into the modern era and which he says includes detailed rules for the treatment of slaves.

“There is a great deal of scripture that sanctions slavery,” said Mr. Bunzel, the author of a research paper published by the Brookings Institution on the ideology of the Islamic State. “You can argue that it is no longer relevant and has fallen into abeyance. ISIS would argue that these institutions need to be revived, because that is what the Prophet and his companions did.”

The youngest, prettiest women and girls were bought in the first weeks after their capture. Others — especially older, married women — described how they were transported from location to location, spending months in the equivalent of human holding pens, until a prospective buyer bid on them.

Their captors appeared to have a system in place, replete with its own methodology of inventorying the women, as well as their own lexicon. Women and girls were referred to as “Sabaya,” followed by their name. Some were bought by wholesalers, who photographed and gave them numbers, to advertise them to potential buyers.

Osman Hassan Ali, a Yazidi businessman who has successfully smuggled out numerous Yazidi women, said he posed as a buyer in order to be sent the photographs. He shared a dozen images, each one showing a Yazidi woman sitting in a bare room on a couch, facing the camera with a blank, unsmiling expression. On the edge of the photograph is written in Arabic, “Sabaya No. 1,” “Sabaya No. 2,” and so on.

Buildings where the women were collected and held sometimes included a viewing room.

“When they put us in the building, they said we had arrived at the ‘Sabaya Market,’” said one 19-year-old victim, whose first initial is I. “I understood we were now in a slave market.”

A woman, who said she was raped by Islamic State militants, at a refugee camp in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq.

Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

She estimated there were at least 500 other unmarried women and girls in the multistory building, with the youngest among them being 11. When the buyers arrived, the girls were taken one by one into a separate room.

“The emirs sat against the wall and called us by name. We had to sit in a chair facing them. You had to look at them, and before you went in, they took away our scarves and anything we could have used to cover ourselves,” she said.

“When it was my turn, they made me stand four times. They made me turn around.”

The captives were also forced to answer intimate questions, including reporting the exact date of their last menstrual cycle. They realized that the fighters were trying to determine whether they were pregnant, in keeping with a Shariah rule stating that a man cannot have intercourse with his slave if she is pregnant.

Property of ISIS

The use of sex slavery by the Islamic State initially surprised even the group’s most ardent supporters, many of whom sparred with journalists online after the first reports of systematic rape.

The Islamic State’s leadership has repeatedly sought to justify the practice to its internal audience.

After the initial article in Dabiq in October, the issue came up in the publication again this year, in an editorial in May that expressed the writer’s hurt and dismay at the fact that some of the group’s own sympathizers had questioned the institution of slavery.

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“What really alarmed me was that some of the Islamic State’s supporters started denying the matter as if the soldiers of the Khilafah had committed a mistake or evil,” the author wrote. “I write this while the letters drip of pride,’’ she said. “We have indeed raided and captured the kafirah women and drove them like sheep by the edge of the sword.” Kafirah refers to infidels.

In a pamphlet published online in December, the Research and Fatwa Department of the Islamic State detailed best practices, including explaining that slaves belong to the estate of the fighter who bought them and therefore can be willed to another man and disposed of just like any other property after his death.

Recent escapees describe an intricate bureaucracy surrounding their captivity, with their status as a slave registered in a contract. When their owner would sell them to another buyer, a new contract would be drafted, like transferring a property deed. At the same time, slaves can also be set free, and fighters are promised a heavenly reward for doing so.

Though rare, this has created one avenue of escape for victims.

A 25-year-old victim who escaped last month, identified by her first initial, A, described how one day her Libyan master handed her a laminated piece of paper. He explained that he had finished his training as a suicide bomber and was planning to blow himself up, and was therefore setting her free.

A woman from the village of Tojo washing dishes in a refugee camp in Kurdistan. She was held by the Islamic State from last August until June and says she was sexually abused.

Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Labeled a “Certificate of Emancipation,” the document was signed by the judge of the western province of the Islamic State. The Yazidi woman presented it at security checkpoints as she left Syria to return to Iraq, where she rejoined her family in July.

The Islamic State recently made it clear that sex with Christian and Jewish women captured in battle is also permissible, according to a new 34-page manual issued this summer by the terror group’s Research and Fatwa Department.

Just about the only prohibition is having sex with a pregnant slave, and the manual describes how an owner must wait for a female captive to have her menstruating cycle, in order to “make sure there is nothing in her womb,” before having intercourse with her. Of the 21 women and girls interviewed for this article, among the only ones who had not been raped were the women who were already pregnant at the moment of their capture, as well as those who were past menopause.

Beyond that, there appears to be no bounds to what is sexually permissible. Child rape is explicitly condoned: “It is permissible to have intercourse with the female slave who hasn’t reached puberty, if she is fit for intercourse,” according to a translation by the Middle East Media Research Institute of a pamphlet published on Twitter last December.

A 25-year-old Yazidi woman showed a “Certificate of Emancipation” given to her by a Libyan who had enslaved her. He explained that he had finished his training as a suicide bomber and was planning to blow himself up, and was therefore setting her free.

Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

One 34-year-old Yazidi woman, who was bought and repeatedly raped by a Saudi fighter in the Syrian city of Shadadi, described how she fared better than the second slave in the household — a 12-year-old girl who was raped for days on end despite heavy bleeding.

“He destroyed her body. She was badly infected. The fighter kept coming and asking me, ‘Why does she smell so bad?’ And I said, she has an infection on the inside, you need to take care of her,” the woman said.

Unmoved, he ignored the girl’s agony, continuing the ritual of praying before and after raping the child.

“I said to him, ‘She’s just a little girl,’ ” the older woman recalled. “And he answered: ‘No. She’s not a little girl. She’s a slave. And she knows exactly how to have sex.’ ’’

“And having sex with her pleases God,” he said.

Correction: August 13, 2015

An earlier version of this article misstated the location of Matthew Barber when the invasion of Mount Sinjar began in August 2014. He was in Dohuk, near Mount Sinjar, not on the mountain itself.

Correction: August 25, 2015

Because of an editing error, an article on Aug. 14 about the Islamic State’s codification of sexual slavery in the regions of Iraq and Syria that it has conquered referred incorrectly to the author of an editorial in Dabiq, the group’s online magazine, that lamented the fact that some ISIS sympathizers were questioning the institution of slavery. The author, who was not named, is a woman.

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Related Coverage

Migration crisis: Desperate refugees escape camps and start a 110-mile trek to Austria

19.40

Conclusion

Thank you for following the Telegraph’s live coverage of the refugee crisis. But before the Telegraph ends this blog, here is a summary of what has happened today:

  1. This morning the day began yet again as the previous day ended: the siege in Bicske station, Hungary, continued with more than 500 migrants and refugees on a train refusing to be taken to a nearby camp. That siege continued for the rest of the day until a few hundred decided they would walk to Austria.
  2. . which is what happened at Keleti station in Budapest where more than 2,000 migrants and refugees had slept for several days after first being refused inside the rail station then allowed to enter but no international trains available. Today again, international trains were cancelled
  3. Some 500 of those decided they would walk 110-miles to Austria and are walking this evening.
  4. At a camp near Rozke, hundreds of refugees broke out of a camp near the Serbian border and authorities closed the nearby border post. However they were soon captured, police said.
  5. Abdullah Kurdi buried his three-year-old and five-year-old sons and wife Rehan Kurdi who died after drowning in their attempt to go to Greece. The distraught father wept as the coffins were lowered into the ground.
  6. Meanwhile in Turkey, four Syrian men were charged with multiple manslaughter and people trafficking after 12 people died in the boat sinking that killed Mr Kurdi’s family. They have been remanded in custody.
  7. After a meeting of eastern European leaders in Prague, the ministers of Czech Republic and Slovakia suggested creating a rail corridor between Hungary and Germany.

18.45

‘Why do they treat us like animals?’

Peter Foster has been speaking to those marching from Keleti railway station towards Austria (which is 110 miles away).

“Why do they treat us like dogs, like animals – no other country does this?” said 18-year-old Salah Zooabie, a Syrian student who left the southern town of Dar’aa two years ago for Egypt before crossing to Greece by boat and then by land to Hungary.

Like many on the march from Keleti rail station, Mr Zooabie had paid €125 for a railway ticket to Austria, but had been unable to use it after the Hungarian authorities shut the international train lines in a bid to draw a line under the mass-migration of recent months which has seen 160,000 migrants enter Hungary this year.

A UN report has put the number of refugees fleeing Syria at more than a million. Around half are children Photo: AFP/Getty Images

UPDATE. Nick Squires in Bodrum shared this: At the end of the hearing, the four men were charged with multiple manslaughter and people trafficking. They were remanded in custody.

18.12

Four Syrians formally charged in Turkey over boat deaths

A prosecutor has charged four Syrian individuals over the deaths of at least 12 people, including three-year-old Aylan Kurdi, a local police chief told Reuters.

This is from Reuters. Prosecutors charged the Syrians with smuggling migrants and causing multiple deaths by “conscious negligence” in connection with the drowning of the group after it set off from the Turkish resort peninsula of Bodrum.

18.04

‘Dead child image shows need for tough Australia-style border policies’

Tony Abbott, Australia’s prime minister, says the images of a dead Syrian boy on a Turkish beach were “very sad” but showed the need for tough Australian-style border policies, writes Jonathan Pearlman in Sydney.

“If you want to stop the deaths, if you want to stop the drownings you have got to stop the boats,” he told ABC News.

“We saw yesterday on our screens a very sad, poignant image of children tragically dead at sea in illegal migration. Thankfully, we have stopped that in Australia because we have stopped the illegal boats.

“We have said to the people smugglers: ‘Your trade is closed down.'”

Relatives hold funeral of Syrian children Aylan, 2, his brother Galip, 3, and mother of Zahin Kurdi, 27, who drowned after their boat sank en route to the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, in the Syrian border town of Kobani Photo: Anadolu Agency

Since winning a general election in 2013, Mr Abbott has effectively ended the flow of asylum seekers but his measures have been criticised as illegal under international law. His suite of measures have included allegedly paying people smugglers to turn around and sending all arrivals to offshore island detention camps.

One of the camps, in the remote Pacific nation of Nauru, was this week labelled unsafe and inappropriate by a parliamentary inquiry.

Mr Abbott’s approach was criticised as “unconscionable” in a New York Times editorial on Thursday.

The piece, which was widely reported in Australia, said Mr Abbott’s policies have been “inhumane, of dubious legality and strikingly at odds with the country’s tradition of welcoming people fleeing persecution and war”.

“It is inexcusable that some [asylum seekers] find themselves today in situations that are more hopeless and degrading than the ones that prompted them to flee,” it said.

17.43

You will remember (those of you following the blog since earlier this afternoon) that 300 migrants and refugees broke out of Roszke camp in Hungary near the Serbia bordern and were later all captured, police said.

Now more have broken through a barrier and have been involved in clashes with riot police, according to Reuters.

Czech Republic and Slovakia have also suggested creating a rail corridor for Syrian refugees that would link Germany and Hungary.

“The Czech Republic and Slovakia can create a rail corridor for Syrian refugees travelling from Hungary to Germany, if Berlin and Budapest agree,” Milan Chovanec, Czech interior minister, said at a joint press conference in Prague.

Dozens of migrants march to the gates before jumping out from inside a refugee camp in Bicske, Hungary Photo: SWNS

17.25

The chair of UKIP Hertfordshire has resigned saying UKIP’s legacy is “turning our backs on people fleeing terror”. pic.twitter.com/EShw3P6STW

17.05

Faisal Alazem who leads the Syrian Canadian council has told the Telegraph Syrians around the world are “emotionally devastated” at what happened to Aylan Kurdi and his family, and also to the plight for Syrians around the world, US Editor Ruth Sherlock and former Middle East correspondent.

There are more than 2000 Syrians who have died in the same way as Aylan. Whenever people escape Syria they think that they are safe. They have fled Isis [Isil], Assad, the bombs. But no, they are still very vulnerable. They are unable to work and they know the war will take a long time. So they are looking for long term solutions.

“The problem is there is no legal process by which they can leave. The embassies don’t accept applications and in so doing, we are encouraging them to make this dangerous journey by sea.”

Mr Alazem said that for the past four years he has received “at least 10 messages per day” from Syrians asking for help in getting asylum status or financial support so they can smuggle themselves out.

16.59

Eastern Europe rejects quotas

The prime ministers of Hungary, Poland and the Czech and Slovak republics have rejected the proposal of migrant quotas, branding the idea as “unacceptable” in a further blow to the chances of finding a European consensus on the migration crisis.

The rejection came following a meeting of the four countries – known collectively as the Visegrad Group – in Prague on Friday. In a joint statement, the leaders said:

Preserving the voluntary nature of EU solidarity measures – so that each member state may build on its experience, best practices and available resources; principles agreed at the highest political level, including in European Council conclusions must be respected. Any proposal leading to introduction of mandatory and permanent quota for solidarity measures would be unacceptable.”

In a swipe at Germany the four also called for all member states to abide to their legal obligations and return migrants to the country where they first registered for asylum.

Refugees hoping to leave Hungary for Western Europe at Budapest train station Photo: Warren Allott/The Telegraph

16.45

A series of tweets, which come from a Twitter account believed to be that of Austin Mitchell, former Labour MP, have raised the eyebrows of many sympathetic to the refugee crisis, writes Helena Horton.

He tweeted: “Idea. Why no[sic] welcome refugees and expell[sic] an equivalent number of Eastern E£uropeans[sic] to make space?

“Isn’t bringing Syrian refugees from camps outside the EU favouring the least enterprising who’d not had the initiative to escape?”

Mr Mitchell was the MP for Grimsby from 1977 to May 2015 and has previously been embroiled in a Twitter controversy with ex-Conservative MP Louise Mensch, tweeting. “A good wife doesn’t disagree with her master in public and a good little girl doesn’t lie about why she quit politics.”

A Labour press officer told the Telegraph: “I don’t know why we would give you a quote about a former MP.”

@AVMitchell2010 Another idea. Why not expel ex-politicians to desert island without internet? You John Prescott & George Galloway for start

— Gorgeous Wreck (@DeGorgeousWreck) September 4, 2015

The wrong sort of refugees? What a tool..@WikiGuido

He’s the second former politician to cause a stir on Twitter because of ill-advised tweets. Yesterday, Peter Bucklitsch, who stood as a candidate in general elections for both Ukip and the Lib Dems, and campaigned for the Conservatives, tweeted: “The little Syrian boy was well clothed and fed. He died because his parents were greedy for the good life in Europe. Queue jumping costs.”

Both the Lib Dems and Ukip distanced themselves from Mr Bucklitsch after viewing the tweet.

16.17

German customs have seized packages of Syrian passports being sent in the post, the finance ministry said on Friday, writes Justin Huggler in Berlin.

It is suspected they may be used by economic migrants to pose as refugees fleeing the civil war in Syria. Both genuine and fake Syrian passports are believed to have been found in the packages that were intercepted.

A spokesman for the ministry told reporters police were currently investigating the documents, but would not comment on how many were found.

There is believed to be a market for Syrian documents as European countries tighten the rules to make sure only those in genuine need are admitted as asylum-seekers.

Germany has unilaterally suspended EU rules for Syrian refugees, and said it will process their asylum claims regardless of where they entered the EU.

But Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, is trying to change the country’s asylum system to deter economic migrants from safe countries like the Balkans, by making it easier for them to be deported.

“A lot of people enter Turkey with fake Syrian papers, because they know that they’ll get asylum in the EU more easily,” Fabrice Leggeri, the head of Frontex, the EU’s border agency, told French radio.

Pregnant migrant rescued from water shortly before giving birth

A heavily pregnant Nigerian woman pulled to safety from a dinghy along with 104 other migrants gave birth on board the Italian coast guard ship that had rescued her before taken to hospital on the Italian island of Lampedusa, writes Chiara Palazzo.

16.12

Hundreds of migrants and refugees who set off from Budapest’s railway station this morning at 10am are now about nine miles from central Budapest on the M1 motorway to Vienna, writes Peter Foster at the scene.

The exodus is taking place alongside afternoon commuter traffic, with a wailing escort of police, and a helicopter overhead.

Some of the migrants and refugees who set off from Budapest’s railway station on Friday morning Photo: PETER FOSTER/THE TELEGRAPH

Loya Kamal, a 17 year old Somalian who says he spent five days at the station concourse said he would march “until Germany”.

“My country is very poor. We have had 18 years of war,” he said in broken English, adding he had come from a refugee camp in Turkey where he had lived for several years.

Like a lot of people, many with children, he said he wanted to come to Europe for a better life. “We want peace. And better life. Better life.”

15.45

European leaders attempting to impose quotas of migrants on countries across the continent are “encouraging” people to make “potentially lethal” journeys, David Cameron has said, writes Peter Dominiczak, The Telegraph’s Political Editor.

The Prime Minister rejected calls from Jean-Claude Juncker, the European Commission president, and other European leaders including Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, for Britain to take its “fair share” of migrants.

He said that the Government’s plan to resettle thousands of Syrian refugees is “a better approach” because you are not encouraging peopleto make “dangerous crossings”.

Hundreds of refugees cross the river Danube in Budapest, having decided to walk towards Austria Photo: AP

Speaking in Madrid, he said: “Britain is not part of Schengen. We’ve maintained our border controls. So we don’t take part in this quota of migrants who’ve arrived in Europe and get spread around Europe. But we will do our bit by taking migrants directly – sorry, refugees directly from the refugee camps, which we think is a better approach because you’re not saying to people, ‘make a dangerous crossing and we’ll give you asylum’.

“We’re saying we will play our part in resettling those people who need resettling, but we’ll take you from refugee camps rather than encourage people to make this dangerous, potentially lethal crossing.”

15.39

How many Syrians have applied for asylum in Europe?

Where have Syrian refugees been trying to seek asylum in Europe? An estimated 348,540 applications were made between April 2011 and July 2015, according to the UNHCR, with Germany and Sweden being the most popular places, receiving nearly half of the applications made, writes The Telegraph ‘s Asa Bennett .

UK Asylum applications from Syrian nationals, including dependants, have soared over recent years

You can read Bennett’s piece in full here where he also explains how many Syrian refugees the UK has taken (216 via a special scheme but nearly 5,000 have been given asylum).

15.23

Another breakout of refugees in Hungary

Hungarian state news agency is reporting that up to 300 migrants and refugees at Biscke rail station have escaped.

These were among the 500 stopped at the train station on their way to Sopron, close to the border with Austria, after 48 hours of being outside Keleti rail station in Budapest.

They had not been given permission to enter the station in the Hungarian capital and once the two days passed, police abandoned their positions and they were able to enter the station.

Police are also now saying that they have captured the majority of the 300 who escaped from Roszke camp near the Serbian border, Reuters reports.

Hundreds of refugees walk on the Elisabet Bridge after leaving the transit zone of the Budapest main train station intending on walking to the Austrian border Photo: Getty Images

15.15

UK to give £100m more to Syrian refugees

The total contribution from the UK to those fleeing the Syrian civil war has increased to £1 billion after the Prime Minister announced an additional £100 million in aid.

David Cameron has just given a speech and is taking questions now with Spain’s prime minister, Mariano Rajoy.

15.10

Hungary crisis: emergency anti-migration laws passed

As migrants and refugees remain in a standoff and some start walking to Austria, Hungary’s parliament upped its response and has just introduced emergency anti-migration laws.

AFP reports that new measures include three-year jail sentences for those who climb over a newly-built razor wire fence on the border with Serbia. Other measure include new border “transit zones” that will hold asylum seekers while applications are processed.

14.59

‘Desperate refugees walk to Austria’

How did the crisis at Keleti rail station in Budapest begin?

According to Reuters, more than 400 migrants – led by a Syrian man – have decided to march through Budapest and added they would walk to Austria.

Some news outlets predict the number of those walking is higher and could be up to 1,000.

Hundreds of refugees walk after leaving the transit zone of the Budapest main train station, as they make their way towards the Austrian border Photo: Getty Images

According to Hussein Kesvani, a reporter at of BuzzFeed News who has been in Budapest this morning at Keleti station, those on the march are still walking, “most people relying on iPhone GPS and walking routes to avoid kettling”.

Walking still continuing and most people relying on iPhone GPS and walking routes to avoid kettling

Richard Engel of NBC News says the one destination the migrants and refugees are thinking of is Germany. Those walking told Engel that after the Syrian war, “they can handle this walk no matter how long it is”.

On the march along the highway most of these migrants have one destination in mind: Germany pic.twitter.com/rO6YmfqwFy

— Richard Engel (@RichardEngel) September 4, 2015

14.41

How do we solve this crisis?

Jan Semmelroggen. expert on migration policy and management at Nottingham Trent University, spoke to the Telegraph earlier this week.

He said there was no easy solution because what would solve the crisis would be to end the wars in the Middle East and to get rid of economic inequality – things that of course would not be easy.

But in the long term, democracy and equal rights were issues that needed to be addressed in countries where people fled from, he added.

He criticised the lack of a burden-sharing agreement in relation to the refugees and migrants after the UK and eastern European countries refused to participate.

Germany and Sweden are taking the vast majority of refugees, who are fleeing wars, especially in Syria.

“Initially the German government thought it would take 400,000, now it’s 800,000. 40,000 [the number given by European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker earlier this year for EU countries to home] won’t cut it anymore.

“This is a humanitarian crisis. Look at countries like Turkey and Lebanon taking three million, carrying the majority of the burden.

“There needs to be an agreement right now – this is a crisis happening right now.”

Migrants hold up their train tickets in front of the Keleti Railway Station in Budapest, Hungary Photo: AP

He warned this crisis would not end any time soon. “The Syrian war will continue for at least a couple of years.”

He also attacked the policy thus far in the UK on immigration which is “politically toxic” he said.

“The UK Government’s policy is keep them out and keep the borders shut. The UK is not pulling its weight.”

On Calais, he made remarks that may cause concern. Mr Semmelroggen said it would get worse as more migrants sought escape to the UK via other ferry and transport links.

14.06

Abdullah Kurdi tells Arab governments to help

It was mentioned earlier that Abdullah Kurdi cried as he watched his youngest child’s body placed into a coffin and lowered into the ground along with those of his brother Galip, 5, and their mother Rehan, 35, in the ‘Martyrs’ Cemetery’ in Kobane.

For those not too familiar, Kobane is a mainly Kurdish town in northern Syria close to the border with Turkey that has come under attack from Isil.

“I want Arab governments – not European countries – to see (what happened to) my children, and because of them to help people,” he said.

Abdullah Kurdi, father of Syrian children Aylan, 2, his brother Galip, 3, and husband of Zahin Kurdi, 27, who drowned after their boat sank en route to the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, mourns during funeral of his family in the Syrian border town of Kobani Photo: Anadolu Agency

13.39

Nigel Farage. speaking in central London, has given his view on the refugee crisis, saying that 95 per cent of those entering Europe are economic migrants, writes David Hodari.

Mr Farage listed a number of causes for alarm and suspicion.

You only have to look at Calais and the summer of total disruption in Kent. to understand that we face the risk – be it in Italy or Greece or Hungary – that at some point someone gets so tired of what’s going on and realises that all they have to do [get] EU passports and then they [refugees] would be free to travel to the UK. We’re not isolated in any way of course.”

The Ukip MEP also stoked fears of international terrorism.

“When ISIS [Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Isil] say they will use they will use the migrant tide to flood Europe with 500,000 of their own jihadists,” he said. “I think we’d better listen. Five hundred thousand may not be realistic. But what if it’s 5,000? what if it’s 500?”

13.26

Hungary crisis: a summary

In this blog, the Telegraph has mentioned situations in three different places where migrants and refugees which are as follows:

Bicske. where more than 500 migrants and refugees have been in a standoff with authorities. They are refusing to leave the train and slept on it last night. It began after police stopped the train at the station once it had departed from Keleti train station.

Keleti train station is where more than 1,000 migrants stranded for days and forced to sleep outside the station when authorities forbid them from entering, are now walking to the Austrian border, according to AFP.

A “huge crowd” have said they will walk 110 miles to the border and among the crowd are people in wheelchairs and crutches.

People have said the trail of refugees trying to leave is over 1km pic.twitter.com/IZ50VRAAf8

23-year-old Osama from Syria told AFP: “We are very happy that something is happening at last, The next stop is Austria. The children are very tired, Hungary is very bad, we have to go somehow.”

And at a camp near Rozke. apparently 300 migrants and refugees broke out of a reception camp and now the Hungarian authorities have closed the nearby border post with Serbia.

12.49

More than 2,000 migrants and refugees at a Hungarian reception camp near the Serbian border are threatening to break out if their demands – which are not known – are not met, police have said, according to Reuters.

The camp near Rozke has already seen 300 break out but police said they were trying to capture all of them, after they broke into small groups.

Viktoria Csiszer-Kovacs, a police spokesman, said they were seeking a peaceful solution but a riot unit had been called in to secure it.

Meanwhile in Kobane.

Coffins of migrants and of Aylan Kurdi, a three-year-old boy whose drowning off Turkey, are seen in an ambulance during a funeral ceremony in Kobane Photo: AFP

The funerals for Aylan, Galip and Rehan Kurdi have taken place with Abdullah Kurdi saying his final goodbyes to his family after they drowned attempting to cross from Turkey to Greece.

Abdullah Kurdi mourns with his relative during the funeral of his toddlers, who drowned with their mother as they were trying to reach Greece Photo: REUTERS

Abdullah Kurdi, third left, the Syrian man who survived a capsizing during a desperate voyage from Turkey to Greece, stands in a graveyard after burying his wife and two sons in their hometown of Kobani Photo: AP

12.39

‘We’re going to die’

Refugees and migrants at the centre of the siege at Bicske station have told of desperate conditions on the train as the standoff enters a second dramatic day, writes James Badcock in Bicske.

A man who said he had travelled from Syria emerged from the stationary train to plea for international assistance to end the crisis and allow the passengers to move on to their desired destination of Germany.

“We have no food, no water; it’s too dirty. We are going to die,” the man said, flanked by several mothers and fathers with their small children, and other migrants demanding that the train be allowed to continue its journey.

Some of the women screamed and smashed their hands against the wire fence separating the tracks on which the packed train stands from reporters gathered in front of the station building.

One man momentarily dangled his son over the fence, shouting to the police that they could take the boy but not him.

Siege at #Bicske enters 2nd day. Train occupants say conditions appalling. What will authorities do? Risk more drama? pic.twitter.com/STu2t3KAeV

“Where is the United Nations or our human rights?” the Syrian man asked. “The Hungary government and all the world should see our women and children.”

He said that the authorities had delivered just 20 sandwiches and two boxes of water for the occupants of the train. The men, he said, did not need to eat or drink, but the women and children were becoming weak. He claimed that one woman on the train was close to giving birth and a diabetic person did not have insulin or sugar to take.

Red Cross workers then handed several packs of bottled water over the fence.

As riot police continue to surround the train with buses waiting outside the station to take the migrants away to ensure they have all registered asylum claims in Hungary, more Syrians have arrived to effectively join the protest.

Mohamed, a 25-year-old who said he started his journey in Damascus, explained how he and his 12 companions had been detained by police yesterday at Tatabanya station in Hungary when they were heading for the border town of Hegyeshalom.

After the police had registered them by taking their fingerprints, he said they had been told to take a train to Bicske, from where they could get to Budapest. Mohamed said that having been foiled in their bid to walk across the border, they wanted to return to the impromptu refugee camp at Budapest’s Keleti station to be with relatives who are still in the capital.

“We will stay here with these people on the train; they are Syrians. We want to go to Germany too,” Mohamed said from his group’s resting place in an alcove by the station building.

“They caught us in the tunnel [under the platforms] and wanted to take us away. We saw the buses outside and did not want to go. Once outside they could not force us with all the cameras here.”

12.13

Bob Geldof opens home to refugees

Bob Geldof has joined those opening their homes to refugees, writes Helena Horton.

The singer has opened his Kent and London homes to four refugee families in disgust at the crisis in Europe.

He joins MPs, Councils and the York Minster in welcoming refugees to the UK. The aid worker has said that refugees are welcome at his family home in Kent and his apartment in London.

He told the Irish radio station RTE: “If there’s a new economy then there needs to be a new politics and it’s a failure of that new politics that’s led to this disgrace, this absolute sickening disgrace.”

“I’m prepared – I’m lucky, I’ve a place in Kent and a flat in London – me and (partner) Jeanne would be prepared to take three families immediately in our place in Kent and a family in our flat in London, immediately, and put them up until such time as they can get going and get a purchase on their future.”

He said that the tragic images of Syrian-Kurd Aylan Kurdi were a source of shame and that he wanted to do something about it.

11.47

Of course we all heard David Cameron’s comments earlier but the UN claims the UK will take 4,000 Syrian refugees to Associated Press.

In a comment, Number 10 said specifics re numbers would be given next week as the British Prime Minister said in his speech earlier today.

The UN refugee agency said they believed the UK’s decision would create “momentum”. However, the Prime Minister has only said thousands and the 4,000 number is not confirmed as true.

“We obviously welcome very much the move to increase resettlement spaces for Syrians in the UK. Those spaces are going to be critical to the lives and future of 4,000 people,” said spokesman Melissa Fleming.

“We certainly believe that there’s the momentum here” for other countries to follow suit.

Refugees hoping to leave Hungary for Western Europe at Budapest train station Photo: Warren Allott/The Telegraph

11.34

According to Jenan Moussa – which the Telegraph has been unable to independently verify – the two children and mother who drowned off the Turkish coast have been buried in Kobane.

These pics are heartbreaking. #AlanKurdi. Ghalib Kurdi & mom now burried in #Kobane. same town they were trying 2flee pic.twitter.com/rrbDsrT7GN

11.11

Some 500 French have signed up to a bed and breakfast website offering refugees whose asylum requests have been accepted a roof for at least two weeks. CALM (Comme A La Maison, or “just like at home) – including a chateau owner, writes Henry Samuel in Paris.

That is a jump of 300 subscribers in 24 hours. Those offering rooms are a varied group, said Alice Barbe, co-founder of Singa, the association running the initiative.

“We have lots of families with spare bedrooms because children have grown up or left, and lots of people living alone, or farmers, people living in rural areas. We even have someone living in a chateau,” she told France Info.

For now, 50 refugees have come forward to ask for housing via CALM, mainly from Syria, Eritrea and Sudan.

To ensure the cohabitation works well, the organisers set rules via a charter and offer 24-hour assistance in case of any problems and a mediator if necessary. The association also offers training for interested families.

There is no financial aspect to the arrangement, which either party can discontinue at any time.

CALM’s aim is to help statutory refugees who have rights, notably to work, but have no French connections. “These refugees are entrepreneurs, talents and a source of inter-cultural wealth and job creation,” said Ms Barbe told France Info.

Giving them a temporary roof helps them “take their bearings, better understand the society they’re in, meet French people and above all find some tranquility during this stressful period”.

10.49

‘No one has done more than UK’

Speaking in Lisbon alongside the Portuguese Prime Minister, Mr Cameron confirmed Britain will accept thousands more Syrian refugees, writes Laura Hughes, Political Correspondent.

“No European country has done more than Britain in this regard. Were it not for that massive aid, the numbers making the perilous journey to Europe today would be even higher.

“Britain will act with its head and its heart providing refuge for those in need while working on a long term solution to the crisis.”

Mr Cameron said he would set out further details next week and the UK government will now discuss how best to design these schemes and the numbers Britain will take with NGOs and partners.

He added: “Britain will continue to work with partners to tackle the conflict in Syria, to provide support to the region, to go after the smuggling gangs exploiting these people and to save lives at sea.

“HMS Enterprise remains in the Mediterranean alongside the Border Force cutters and together with HMS Bulwark, they have now rescued more than 6,700 people.”

10.34

Cameron: UK will take more refugees

The British Prime Minister has just been speaking live on Sky News and other channels at a press conference where he said the UK would take thousands more Syrian refugees.

David Cameron said:

Britain has accepted 5,000 Syrian refugees and we’ve introduced a specific scheme [to take more]. As I earlier, we will accept thousands more and we will keep that under review.

“We will soon announce resettlement plans for thousands for refugees to offer a more safe and direct route.

“We will discuss how best to design these schemes and we will set out more details next week.”

10.26

Refugees and migrants do not want to come to Slovakia because there are “generous asylum system of benefits” in the UK and in other countries, according to Miroslav Lajcak, deputy prime minister and foreign minister of the country.

Ask these people whether they want to come to Slovakia, they don’t, they don’t even want to stay in France and they want to come to the UK.

“You know when we have all seen the pictures from Calais – there is no administrative solution to this problem if people don’t even know Slovakia exists and you will send here a contingent of angry people because they did not risk their lives to end up in Slovakia, in Latvia, in Estonia.

“They want to go to countries where there is a more generous asylum system of benefits.”

10.17

Images of Mr Kurdi arriving with his family’s caskets have been published on social media.

— Quentin Sommerville (@sommervillebbc) September 4, 2015

Aylan Kurdi and family taken across border from Turkey to Kobane in #Syria for burial today via @ABDIJEWAN pic.twitter.com/1Mc21UknnM

— Richard Colebourn (@rcolebourn) September 4, 2015

10.16

Four alleged smugglers accused of being responsible for the tragedy off the Turkish coast are appearing in court in Bodrum, a few miles from where the dinghy capsized, writes Nick Squires in Bodrum.

The four Syrian men were handcuffed as they were led up the courtroom steps. One of them was sobbing and another tried to hide his face with his hands.

A judge was to question them and decide whether to formally charge them. So far they have been detained but not charged.

“It is a closed hearing, not open to the press,” a court spokesman said.

Two of the men were identified as Mustafa Halil and Hassan Ali Salih. Both their mothers wept and insisted their sons were innocent.

10.14

Churches, councils and civilians open their doors to welcome refugees in the UK, writes Helena Horton.

A variety of people and venues in the UK have been moved by the stories of stranded refugees, and have offered to house them.

York has a history of helping refugees, most recently offering sanctuary to 90 Kosovian Albanians in 1999.

Councils have also offered to help refugees, with Glasgow city council offering 50 to 60 Syrian people, and councils in Kingston, Birmingham, Newcastle and Edinburgh agreeing to take 50 refugees each.

Some of the donations at the drop off point for aid items for refugees and migrants at the Bristol Wood Recycling Project Photo: SWNS

I’m not affluent, middle-class, seeking to adopt a foreign infant, @ukhomeoffice. I’m working-class and inviting a #refugee to live with me.

#ukhelpsyrians I’d welcome a Syrian refugee to live in my home. Please pledge & share. We must make our gov listen #refugee #uk

10.04

Sturgeon calls on Cameron to accept more refugees

The SNP leader has written a letter to David Cameron calling on the government to increase the number of refugees taken in by the UK, writes Laura Hughes.

Nicola Sturgeon said Britain has a “moral obligation” to tackle the crisis and Scotland is standing “ready to help offer sanctuary to refugees who need our help”.

The First Minister wrote: “We, with our neighbours and friends across the EU, have a moral obligation to offer a place of safety to these desperate people fleeing conflict and persecution.

“I welcomed the expansion of the Syrian Vulnerable Person scheme but I would stress that this in itself is not sufficient to address the crisis we are witnessing.

“I strongly urge you to reconsider the UK Government’s current response. The Scottish Government believes we must take part in the EU response.”

10.03

‘Christian roots threatened’

Yesterday, Viktor Orban made some inflammatory comments regarding Muslim migrants and his fears of Europe’s Christian roots being threatened.

All countries have a right to decide whether they want to live with large numbers of Muslims in their countries. If they want to, they can. We don’t want to, and we have a right to decide we do not want a large number of Muslim people in our country. We do not like the consequences of having large numbers of Muslim communities that we see in other countries, and I see no reason for anyone to force us to create ways of living together.”

Belongings found washed up on a beach in Bodrum near to where Aylan Kurdi was found two days ago Photo: Eddie Mulholland/The Telegraph

The Hungarian prime minister said that “Hungarians are full of fear” at a Brussels news conference. He also warned that the surge of predominantly Muslims from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere would be damaging to Europe’s Christian roots in an opinion piece for Germany’s Frankfurt Allgemeine Zeitung,

We must not forget that those who are coming in have been brought up under a different religion and represent a profoundly different culture.

“The majority are not Christians but Muslims. That is an important question because Europe and European culture have Christian roots.

“Or is it not already, and in itself, alarming that Europe’s Christian culture is barely able to uphold Europe’s own Christian values?”

Dinghy and other belongings found washed up on a beach in Bodrum near to where Aylan Kurdi was found two days ago Photo: Eddie Mulholland/The Telegraph

09.41

Where are the refugees from?

And how many has the UK accepted? David Stevenson explains in charts

And some of you (including those this writer knows) were asking: how many Syrian refugees are in other countries in the Middle East?

09.35

Abdullah Kurdi, father of the three-year-old boy whose body washed up on Bodrum beach, has returned to his hometown Kobane on Friday to bury his family, an AFP photographer says.

Mr Kurdi arrived at Suruc with the caskets of his two sons and wife and then entered Kobane.

The car carrying the father and the caskets entered Kobane and returned to Turkey while a convoy of journalists and activists was stopped at the border.

AFP said preparations to bury the Kurdi family members as “martyrs of Kobane who lost their lives to flee the war” had begun.

08.57

The scene at Budapest’s Keleti station this morning is calm, in stark contrast to yesterday’s frantic scramble to leave Hungary, writes James Badcock at the station.

International trains to western Europe remain cancelled. The migrants camping outside the station I spoke to were aware of the fate of those who set off towards the Austrian border yesterday, and who remain locked in a siege at Bicske station with the passengers still refusing to leave the train.

Associated Press reported that 16 people voluntarily checked into the asylum centre yesterday, while 500 others refused, according to Col Laszlo Balazs, the head of police border control.

08.52

The Turkish photographer who took the heart-breaking picture of a toddler’s lifeless body lying on a beach has described the moment she came across the child, writes Nick Squires in Bodrum.

Nilufer Demir said she was “petrified” when she saw the tiny body of three-year-old Aylan Kurdi on a beach near the tourist resort town of Bodrum but felt she had to take the photo to draw attention to the desperate plight of refugees trying to cross the Aegean to the Greek islands.

She came across the body at around 6am on Wednesday and then found the body of Aylan’s brother, Galip. Neither was wearing a life jacket.

“He (Aylan) was lying lifeless, face down in the surf, in his red T-shirt and dark blue shorts. The only thing I could do was to make his outcry heard,” Ms Demir told the Hurriyet Daily News, a Turkish English-language newspaper.

“Galip was lying 100 metres away from his brother. I approached him. I noticed they didn’t have any life jackets on them, any arm floats, anything to help them to float in the water.”

She was on the beach with other journalists, covering attempts by migrants and refugees to reach the nearby island of Kos, just four miles across the sea from the Bodrum peninsula.

“We were shocked; we felt sorrow for them. The best thing to do was to make this tragedy heard.”

08.48

A heavy police presence along the coast near the resort town of Bodrum, on Turkey’s Aegean coast, seems to have deterred smugglers and refugees/migrants – at least for now, writes Nick Squires in Bodrum.

With a photographer colleague, I was up at 4am this morning to drive from Bodrum to a beach regularly used by smugglers to launch motorised dinghies heading to the nearby Greek island of Kos, which lies just four miles away and is clearly visible.

In the dawn half-light, there were no boats, no smugglers and no Syrian refugees – just police cars and police motorbikes. A life jacket had washed up on the shore, along with an Iranian man’s wallet – who knows whether he is alive or dead?

08.45

‘Refugee crisis is a global problem’

Sir Malcolm Rifkind, the former foreign secretary told Radio 4 this morning that living in Turkey means your life is not in danger, writes Laura Hughes, Political Correspondent.

The point I would have to make from a humanitarian view, I don’t blame people wanting to find a better life in the countries of northern Europe, but from an asylum point of view, if you are already in Turkey than your life is not in danger, your children are not going to lose their lives, your children are safe from Syria, so it becomes a separate issue as to whether the countries of Europe should be expected to have, as it were, an open ended position for anyone who wants to come here.

Sir Malcolm said a refugee crisis would be an obligation for the world and not just the UK or EU:

When people talk about a refugee crisis and the moral obligations that implies, that is not just an obligation for Britain or for Europe. People go back to the Second World War and the huge refugee crisis that involved and of course very large number went to the United States, to Canada, to South America, to Australia and other countries.

“So this is not a question of what is the quota for Britain, or quota for Europe, if this is a global problem, which it is, then we should be expecting other developed countries also to be playing their part and there had been very little discussion about that.

“I have no doubt that the United Kingdom, with a very long reputation as a country that does give refuge to people with genuine asylum requirements, should respond in a positive way and that that must run into thousands of people being admitted into this country.

Aunt of Aylan Kurdi speaks of her brother’s ordeal with smugglers

08.33

Since the siege continues in Bicske and yesterday’s comments by Viktor Orban, the Hungarian prime minister about the “German problem”, he has again made controversial remarks, offending many.

He claimed that the crisis would mean Europeans are a minority in their own continent.

The reality is that Europe is threatened by a mass inflow of people, many tens of millions of people could come to Europe.

“Now we talk about hundreds of thousands but next year we will talk about millions and there is no end to this,” he said.

“All of a sudden we will see that we are in minority in our own continent.”

His comments come as previously mentioned a siege continues at Bicske where hundreds of refugees were forced to sleep inside a train after authorities refused to let the train continue its journey near the Austrian border.

08.02

Hello and welcome to the Telegraph’s live coverage of the EU refugee crisis unfolding across the continent.

The world has been left asking: ‘what can be done?’ since images of Aylan Kurdi, 3, were published online and in newspapers on Wednesday and yesterday.

They say a picture is a 1,000 words and with the images of Aylan, washed up on a Turkish beach lying face down, the plight of hundreds of thousands of people has dominated conversation as the EU starts to consider how it should react. Today many will hope for strong reaction and action as EU foreign ministers are set to meet later to discuss the escalating crisis.

But this crisis did not begin a few days ago, not even a few months ago but record numbers of refugees and migrants have come to Europe via the Mediterranean crossing, the Balkans route, from Turkey to Greek islands and even via a remote Arctic border to Norway on bikes.

What’s happened so far?

Yesterday night we reported that UK Prime Minister David Cameron is planning to announce that the UK will take up to 10,000 Syrian refugees.

The news came as Viktor Orban, Hungarian prime minister, said the crisis was a “German problem” since the migrants sought asylum in Germany.

Yesterday morning in Hungary, after a 48-hour blockade, police abandoned their positions at Keleti station in Budapest and allowed migrants and refugees into the station.

International trains were cancelled but refugees and migrants desperate for somewhere to go near Austria stayed on the train going to Sopron near Austria.

Hundreds of people entered and more than 500 boarded one train going towards the Austrian border which subsequently was stopped by authorities in Bicske.

The train departed at 11am BST and shortly stopped at Bicske which is near a refugee camp.

However migrants and refugees desperate not to be taken remained on the train and refused to leave. That stand-off continues, James Badock in Budapest. said.

But at Keleti station today, international trains going to western Europe remain cancelled.