MLA style is one of the most widely spread standards of academic writing that are used in the United States, Canada and some other countries. It is natural that such standards are adopted. When all the works are more or less standardized, it is easier to work with them, create cross-references and so on. It also stands to reason that different groups of science may need different documentary conventions because of the gaps between the disciplines and their usage.
MLA style is mostly used in humanities, as it may be understood from its name (Modern Language Association) in linguistics. Its major peculiarities are :
- In the bibliography all the information about a book appears in pre-determined order and looks like this: Surname, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. (E.g. Smith, John. Essay Writing for Everybody. New York: New York Research Press, 2002.)
- MLA style uses short in-text citations after the quote, a reference to its source or a paraphrase. It gives the author’s name and the number of page (e.g. Jones 151).
- When you cite online sources . you should complete your reference by mentioning the date when you have accessed it.
- If you refer to a well-known and commonly accessible reference book . don’t mention all the publication information – only edition and publication year.
- Previously, the MLA style used underlining in titles. This has been replaced by italicizing.
- The latest edition of the MLA style guide suggests that there is no need in mentioning URLs, for Internet addresses tend to change very often. You should only mention them if there is any doubt that readers will be able to find them in any other way.
- Abbreviations . n. pag. – no pagination, n.p. – no publisher’s name, n.d. – no date.
As you may see, the MLA style influences the citation and bibliography formatting most of all. There are certain other points, but you can clear them up by asking your professor. Remember to study the guide carefully before beginning to work on your paper, for if you omit something, it may be very bothersome to make alterations during the later stages of your work.
Please notice that here only the most major points are mentioned and, if you have to deal with a situation that is not mentioned here, we recommend that you consult the MLA Style guide for further information on other cases of formatting.
Remember, it is better to use correct formatting from the stage of writing drafts. It is also recommended to write down all the information considering sources you take as a basis at the stage of literature research so as not to forget some important details.
In order to see an essay with properly formatted references and bibliography, view the corresponding sample .
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MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodr�guez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2016-09-07 05:00:50
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it’s a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263).
Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford UP, 1967. Print.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For Print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3).
Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. Print.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g. nat’l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it’s a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number.
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. ” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
“The Impact of Global Warming in North America.” Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. Web. 23 Mar. 2009.
We’ll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it’s important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels’s The Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors’ first initials (or even the authors’ full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning (9).
The authors claim that surface reading looks at what is “evident, perceptible, apprehensible in texts” (Best and Marcus 9).
Corresponding works cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations. vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
According to Franck, et al, “Current agricultural policies in the U.S. are contributing to the poor health of Americans” (327).
The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies (Franck, et al. 327).
Corresponding works cited entry:
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine. vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author :
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child’s second and third year (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).
Citing two books by the same author :
Murray states that writing is “a process” that “varies with our thinking style” (Write to Learn 6). Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to “carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another” (A Writer Teaches Writing 3).
Additionally, if the author’s name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author’s name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers:
Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be “too easy” (Elkins, “Visual Studies” 63).
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17).
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you’re using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter and verse. For example:
Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures,” each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible. Ezek. 1.5-10).
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation.
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use “qtd. in” to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as “social service centers, and they don’t do that well” (qtd. in Weisman 259).
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL’s Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Werner Herzog’s Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog’s long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo. Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.
During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.
In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo. Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. “Invention in Rhetoric and Composition.” Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002.
One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo “has become notorious for its near-failure and many obstacles” (Taylor, “Fitzcarraldo”).
The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Its “MLA Formatting and Style Guide” is one of the most popular resources (Russell et al.).
In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below). In the second example, “Russell et al.” in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al.,” meaning, “and others,” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. “Fitzcarraldo.” Slant. 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/.
Russell, Tony, et al. “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” The Purdue OWL. 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they’ll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts.
The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources.
MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements.
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MLA Format Template (Download)
Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements. You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.
- The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page.
- 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay .
- One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper.
- Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold.
- The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side.
- You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right.
- It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text.
Download MLA Paper Example
Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting.
MLA In-Text Citations Format
While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style. you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style.
Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) .
Example. If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154).
Note. there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number.
Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154).
- Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets.
Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way:
A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77).
Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need.
Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph. who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16)
Adding information. In the MLA essay. it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets.
Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr. who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813).
More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay. then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon.
Example. David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47).
Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis.
Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4)
In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com
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MLA Title Page Format
The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay.
Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us.
- Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page.
- The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks.
- The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space.
If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page. then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style
MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge)
There might be a working outline. that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format .
- MLA outline should be done on a separate page.
- The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered.
- On the next line you should “Outline”.
- Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline .
- Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline .
- If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline. remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc.
MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge)
The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules.
All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author. arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title.
When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book.
Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print.
Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources).
Referencing a publications of several authors
When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al .
Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.
Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place.
Example. Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print.
Referencing newspaper/journal articles
The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style.
Example. Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print.
Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan. Dec. etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.
The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources.
Example. “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com. 2011, January. < http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ >. Web.
Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets.
P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays. Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules.
MLA Footnotes and Endnotes
Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page.
Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com. will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper.
MLA Format Headings
Please do not confuse headings with a header. A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections.
MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:
- The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold.
- The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter.
- All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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